No one can dispute that typical carbohydrates in our diet spike blood glucose and insulin levels, but many seem reluctant to accept t he cascade of biological consequences from daily exposure to those things result in fat storage, poor health and accelerated aging. Death risk from all causes as well as cardio-vascular diseases are increased with high glycemic carbohydrates But if your going to give up sugar, flour, potatoes, rice, pasta, corn flour, bread, cakes, biscuits, etc. what are you going to eat instead? The obvious, least controversial, most scientifically plausible answer is low calorie density foods (LCD), these are mostly plants, leafy greens, cruciferous and all sorts of vegetables, whole fruits and what they have in common is a high water, fibre and phytonutrient content. Fibre fits the bill because it has zero to 2 kcalories per gram and is so vitally important to maintain healthy microbiota and gut function. High fibre is associated with reduced risk of all cause mortality . The biological mechanisms of health improvement with fibre involve the microbiome and the metabolic bi-products of the microbiome, the so called metabiotics . Despite the growing consumer popularity of high protein, excess stimulates insulin secretion and while high protein intake may promote body growth and muscle building it most likely accelerates the aging process and therefore detrimental to long term health . The emphasis on replacing carbs with dietary fat, a la LCHF mantra, is also problematic fat has the highest calorie density and high fat per se has never been shown to improve outcomes but a neutral effect of no increased risk of all-cause mortality or heart disease . However, high fat meals do cause a transient increase gut bacteria derived inflammation . Nevertheless, foods high in fat and protein are highly prized and enjoyable but balancing them with LCD plant foods is a very nice, culturally acceptable way to moderate them. The best recommendations as far as macronutrients are concerned low carbohydrate, moderate protein, significant fibre, nevertheless, fat by default, because of the low energy density of high fibre foods, often becomes the primary source of calories. Do you think LCHIFI trumps LCHF?